Charge: Electric charge(Electric Charges and Fields) is an intrinsic property of elementary particles of matter which gives rise to electric force between various objects.
Quantization: Charge is always in the form of an integral multiple of electronic charge and never its fraction.
q = ±ne
Where n is an integer and e = 1.6 × 10–19 C.
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Millikan’s oil drop experiment showed the discrete nature of the charge. The charge cannot be fractional multiple of e.
Electric Charges and Fields
Conservation of charge: Net charge of an isolated physical system always remains constant. The charge can neither be created nor destroyed. It can be transferred from one body to another.
Electric charge is additive, i.e., the total charge is the algebraic sum of the individual charges.
Electric charge is invariant as it does not depend upon the motion of the charged body or the observer.
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