How is Ethyl Acetate made? | Properties | Uses

How is Ethyl Acetate made? | Properties | Uses

Preparation of Ethyl Acetate

Laboratory Method

In the laboratory, ethyl acetate is made by the action of ethyl alcohol and acetic acid.

CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

This reaction is reversible. To prevent the reverse reaction, it is necessary to use a dehydration. Hence this reaction is carried out in the presence of concentrated H2SO4. Concentrated H2SO4 acts as both anhydrous and catalytic.

Method of Use

In a 250 ml round bottom flask, take about 50 ml acetic acid, 50 ml ethanol and 15 ml concentrated H2SO4. Put a direct water condenser in the flask and heat the mixture kept in the flask for about 15 minutes.

After this, the mixture placed in the flask is poured into a distillation flask. Distillation flasks are connected to thermometer, condenser, and receiver. The distillates heat the flask and collect the distilled fluid in the receiver.

preparation-of-ethyl-acetate

The fluid obtained up to 80°C is mainly ethyl acetate. It contains acetic acid, ethyl alcohol, sulfuric acid, water and small amounts of diethyl ether impurities.

Purification

Shaking the impure ester in a separating funnel with a concentrated solution of sodium carbonate. Soluble salts are formed by the reaction of sodium carbonate with acetic acid and sulphurous acid.

These salts fall into the lower aqueous layer in the separating funnel. Open the spout of the funnel and separate the aqueous layer.

How to make ethyl acetate

(Synthesis + Raman analysis)

Calcium chloride is added to the remaining esters. It absorbs ethanol and water and gets deposited in the ester layer.

Filter it or open the funnel and separate it. Distillation of the remaining esters achieves pure ethyl acetate at 77-79°C.

Other Methods

:- Ethyl acetate is also obtained by the reaction of acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride on ethanol.

(CH3CO)2O + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + CH3COOH

CH3COCl + C2H5OH CHCOOC2H5 + HCl

:- Ethyl acetate is also obtained by heating the alcohol solution of silver acetate with ethyl iodide.

CH3COOAg + C2H5I CH3COOC2H5 + AgI

Physical Properties of Ethyl Acetate

Ethyl acetate structure

Ethyl acetate is a colorless and fruity smelling liquid. Its boiling point is 77°C. It is less soluble in water but is completely blendable(mixture) in alcohol and ether. It is lighter than water and its relative density is 0.91.

Chemical Properties of Ethyl Acetate

Water decomposition: Ethyl acetate is decomposed by dilute acids to form acetic acid and ethanol. 

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O CH3COOH + C2H5OH

Water is decomposed by dilute bases to form acetic acid salts and ethanol.

CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH CH3COONa + C2H5OH

Oils and fats are esters made with high monocarboxylic acid of glycerol. Their alkaline water decomposition makes soap. Hence the action of water decomposition by the bases of esters is called saponificarion.

Reduction: It is reduced by H2-Ni, sodium ethanol, LiAlH4 or NaBH4 to form ethanol.

CH3COOC2H5 CH3CH2OH + C2H5OH

Reaction with ammonia: It reacts with ammonia to produce ecetamide.

CH3COOC2H5 + NH3 CH3CONH2 + C2H5OH

Reaction with phosphorus pentachloride: It reacts with phosphorus pentachloride to form acetyl chloride and ethyl chloride.

CH3COOC2H5 + PCl5 CH3COCl + C2H5Cl + POCl3

Claisen’s condensation: Two molecules of ethyl acetate condense in the presence of sodium ethoxide to form ethyl acetoacetate, also known as acetoacetic ester. This reaction is called claisen condensation.

CH3COOC2H5 + CH3COOC2H5 CH3COCH2COOC2H5 + C2H5OH

Ethyl Acetate Uses

  • As solvent
  • Smelting medicines and food items and making perfumes
  • Used in making acetoacetic ester which is used to make many carbnic compounds.

Sanjay Bhandari

Hello Friends, My name is Sanjay Bhandari. I am a chemistry Teacher.

Leave a Reply