The word “chemistry”, if interpreted literally, is “the science of change”. Chemistry, like physics, is the basic science of the natural sciences. Chemistry is a natural science based on experiments. And here is the list of Nobel Prize in Chemistry on the bottom.
Mendeleev’s proposed periodic table of chemical elements greatly promoted the development of chemistry.
Many people now call chemistry “central science” because chemistry is the core of some scientific disciplines, such as materials science, nanotechnology, and biochemistry.
Chemical research at the atomic level is a matter of the composition, structure, properties, and changes of the natural sciences.
which are the chemical changes in the core foundation? There are five secondary disciplines under modern chemistry: inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, and polymer chemistry.
Chemistry is one of the important basic sciences and a subject based on experiments. It has developed rapidly in the interpenetration with physics, biology, geography, astronomy and other disciplines, and has also promoted other disciplines and Development of technology.
- Ammonia Formula || why ammonia is toxic || Ammonia Poisoning
- Why Ozone Layer is Important || Ozone Layer Depletion
- What is the Concentration of solution || How Concentration Affects Reaction
- Why Carbon Cycle is Important || How it Works
- Haloalkanes and Haloarenes NCERT Solutions || Haloalkane Structure
- Carbon Dioxide Cycle and Formula || How Carbon Dioxide is Produced
For example, the research results of nucleic acid chemistry have brought today’s biology from the cellular level to the molecular level and established molecular biology.
Chemistry plays an important role in our understanding and use of substances. The universe is composed of matter, and chemistry is one of the main methods and means for humans to understand and transform the material world.
It is a long and dynamic discipline with a close relationship with human progress and social development. Success is an important symbol of social civilization.
From the primitive society that started to use fire to the modern society that uses various artificial substances, human beings are enjoying the fruits of chemistry. Human life can be continuously improved and improved, and the contribution of chemistry plays an important role in it.
The analysis of the chemical composition of various stars has revealed the law of element distribution, found the existence of simple compounds in interstellar space, provided experimental data for astronomical evolution and modern cosmology, and enriched the content of natural dialectics.
The periodic table of elements is the heart of chemistry. The periodic table of elements is a concrete form of the periodic law of the elements, which reflects the internal structure of elemental atoms and the rules of their interconnections.
The periodic table of elements is referred to as the periodic table. The periodic table of elements has 7 periods, 16 families and 4 regions. The position of an element in the periodic table reflects the atomic structure of the element.
The same row of elements in the periodic table constitutes a cycle. The number of electron layers of an atom of the same period is equal to the ordinal number of the period. The elements of the same vertical line (the third group includes 3 vertical lines) are called “family”.
The family is a reflection of the configuration of the inner and outer electron layers of the atom. For example, in the external electron configuration, the group IA is ns 1, the group IIIA is ns 2 np1, the group O is ns2 np4, the group IIIB is (n-1) d1 · ns2 and the like.
The periodic table of elements can vividly reflect the law of elemental periodicity. According to the periodic table of the elements, the atomic structure of various elements and the law of the gradual change of the properties of the elements and their compounds can be inferred.
That year, Mendeleev according to the Periodic Table of the nature of the surrounding elements and compounds of unknown elements, after a comprehensive speculated that successfully predicts the unknown properties of elements and their compounds.
Now scientists use the periodic table to guide the search for elements and compounds for semiconductors, catalysts, chemical pesticides, and new materials.
Periodicity of modern chemistry is the 1869 Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev (Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev) finishing first, he will be 63 elements known at that time in accordance with the table of atomic weights and sizes Formal arrangement, placing elements with similar chemical properties on the same line, is the prototype of the periodic table.
Use of the periodic table, Mendeleev successfully predicted the behavior of undiscovered elements (gallium, scandium, germanium). In 1913, British scientist Moseler used cathode rays to strike metal to generate X-rays. He found that the larger the atomic number, the higher the frequency of X-rays.
Therefore, he believes that the positive charge of the nucleus determines the chemical properties of the element and treats the element according to the positive charge (that is, the number of protons or atomic numbers) is aligned, and it has become a contemporary periodic table after many years of revision.
Type of Chemistry
- inorganic chemistry
Elementary Chemistry, inorganic synthetic chemistry, inorganic polymer chemistry, inorganic solid chemistry, coordination chemistry (ie complex chemistry), isotope chemistry, bio-inorganic chemistry, metal-organic chemistry, metal enzyme chemistry, etc.
- Organic chemistry
General organic chemistry, organic synthetic chemistry, metal and non-metal organic chemistry, physical organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry, organic analytical chemistry.
- Physical Chemistry
Structural chemistry, thermochemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, solution theory, interface chemistry, colloid chemistry, quantum chemistry, catalysis and its theory.
- analytical chemistry
Chemical analysis, instrumentation and new technology analysis. Including performance measurement, monitoring, various spectroscopic and photochemical analysis, various electrochemical analysis methods, mass spectrometry, various electron microscopy, imaging and morphology analysis methods, online analysis, activity analysis, real-time analysis, etc.
Various physical and chemical properties And physiological activity detection methods, extraction, ion exchange, chromatography, mass spectrometry, and other separation methods, separation and analysis combined, synthetic separation and analysis combined triple, etc.
- high polymer chemistry
Natural polymer chemistry, polymer synthetic chemistry, polymer physical chemistry, polymer applications, polymer physics.
- Nuclear chemistry
Radioactive chemistry, radioanalytical chemistry, radiation chemistry, isotope chemistry, nuclear chemistry.
General biochemistry, enzymes, microbiology, phytochemistry, immunochemistry, fermentation and biological engineering, food chemistry, coal chemistry, etc.
Other marginal disciplines related to chemistry are: geochemistry, marine chemistry, atmospheric chemistry, environmental chemistry, space chemistry, interstellar chemistry, etc.
List of Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Early twentieth century
- In 1901 J.H. Van Hof (Netherlands) discovered the laws of chemical kinetics and osmotic pressure in solution.
- In 1902 EH Fischer (Germany) synthesized sugars and purine inducers.
- 1903 SA Arrhenius (Sweden) proposed the electrolyte solution theory.
- In 1904 W. Ramsay (UK) discovered inert gases in the air.
- 1905 A. von Bayer (Germany) works on organic dyes and hydrogenated aromatic compounds.
- In 1906 H. Moissan (France) engaged in the study of elemental fluorine .
- 1907 E. Bischner (Germany) engaged in enzyme and enzyme chemistry and biological research.
- In 1908, E. Rutherford (UK) first proposed the theory of radioactive element decay.
- In 1909 W. Ostwald (Germany) engaged in the study of catalysis, chemical equilibrium and reaction speed.
- Founder of the alicyclic compound O. Wallach (Germany) in 1910.
- In 1911 M. Curie (France) discovered radium and thorium.
- In 1912, V. Greenia (France) invented the Greenia reagent -organic magnesium reagent.
P. Sabaty (France) used fine metal powder as a catalyst to invent an effective method for preparing hydrogenated unsaturated hydrocarbons.
- 1913 A. Werner (Switzerland) engaged in the study of coordination compounds and the study of intra-molecular atomic valence.
- In 1914, TW Richards (USA) devoted himself to the research of atomic weight and accurately determined the atomic weight of many elements.
- In 1915, R. Willstedt (Germany) engaged in the research of plant pigments (chlorophyll).
- No prizes were awarded from 1916 to 1917.
- In 1918, F. Hubble (Germany) researched and invented an effective large-scale ammonia synthesis method.
- In 1920 WH Nernst (Germany) engaged in electrochemical and thermodynamic research.
- In 1921, F. Sodi (UK) was engaged in the research of radioactive materials and was named ” Isotopes ” for the first time.
- FW Aston (UK) discovered isotopes in non-radioactive elements and developed a mass spectrometer in 1922 .
- In 1923, F. Pregel (Austria) founded the microanalytical method of organic compounds.
- In 1925 RA Sigmund (Germany) engaged in the research of colloidal solutions and established colloidal chemistry.
- In 1926 T. Svedberg (Sweden) engaged in the study of dispersion systems in colloid chemistry.
- In 1927, HO Wieland (Germany) research confirmed the chemical structure of bile acid and many similar substances.
- In 1928 A. Windus (Germany) developed a family of sterols and their relationship with vitamins.
- 1929 A. Harden (UK), von Oyle-Scherpin (Swedish) illustrates the sugar fermentation process and the role of enzymes.
- 1930 H. Fischer (Germany) engaged in research on the properties and structure of heme and chlorophyll.
- In 1931, C. Bosch (Germany) and F. Bergius (German) invented and developed high-pressure chemical methods.
- In 1932 I. Ramill (USA) founded surface chemistry.
- In 1934 HC Yuri (USA) discovered deuterium
- In 1935 JFJ Curie, IJ Curie (France) invented artificial radioactive elements .
- In 1936, PJW Debye (USA) proposed the concept of molecular magnetic dipole and applied X-ray diffraction to clarify the molecular structure.
- 1937 WN Hobos (UK) engaged in structural studies of carbohydrates and vitamin C.
P. Carre (Switzerland) Research on carotenoids, riboflavin, and vitamins A and B2.
- 1938 R. Kuhn (Germany) engaged in research on carotenoids and vitamins.
- 1939 A. Buttenant (Germany) engaged in research on sex hormones.
Mid twentieth century
- 1943 G. Hewesz (Hungary) uses radioisotope tracing techniques to study chemical and physical changes.
- In 1944 O. Hahn (Germany) discovered a heavy nuclear fission reaction.
- In 1945, AI Weiertanan (Finland) studied agricultural chemistry and nutrition chemistry, and invented the method of fresh storage and maintenance of feed.
- In 1946, JB Sumner (USA) isolated and purified the enzyme for the first time.
JH Northrop, WM Stanley (USA) Isolates and purifies enzymes and viral proteins.
- 1947 R. Robinson (UK) engaged in the research of alkaloids.
- 1948 AWK Ticerius (Sweden) discovers electrophoresis and adsorption chromatography .
- In 1949, WF Giok (USA) has long been engaged in the research of chemical thermodynamics, and his research is on the physical reaction under over-temperature conditions.
- In 1950 OPH Diels and K. Alder (Germany) discovered the Diels-Alder reaction and its application.
- In 1951 GT Seeberg and EM McMillan (USA) discovered transuranic elements .
- In 1952, AJP Martin and RLM Singh (UK) developed and applied partition chromatography .
- 1953 H. Staudinger (Germany) engaged in the research of cyclic polymer compounds .
- In 1954, LC Pauling (USA) clarified the nature of chemical bonding and explained complex molecular structures.
- In 1955, V. Wignoord (USA) identified and synthesized sulfur-containing biological substances (especially oxytocin and vasopressin).
- 1956 CN Sherwood (UK).
NN Semenov (Russia) proposed the chemical kinetic theory of gas phase reactions (especially branched chain reactions).
- In 1957 AR Todd (UK) was engaged in the research of nucleases and nucleic acid coenzymes.
- 1958 F. Sanger (UK) engaged in research on insulin structure.
- In 1959 J. Helovsky (Czech Republic) put forward the polarographic theory and invented the polarographic analysis method in electrochemical analysis.
- In 1960 WF Libby (USA) invented the “Radiocarbon dating method”.
- In 1961 M. Calvin (USA) suggested the mechanism of plant photosynthesis.
- In 1962, MF Perutz and JC Kendrew (UK) determined the fine structure of the protein.
- In 1963, K. Ziegler (Germany) and G. Nata (Italy) discovered a method for polymerizing with a new catalyst and engaged in basic research in this area.
- In 1964, DMC Hawking (UK) used X-ray diffraction to determine the spatial structure of complex crystals and macromolecules.
- 1965 Woodward (USA) for his contribution to organic synthesis.
- In 1966 RS Maliken (USA) used quantum mechanics to establish the molecular structure orbital theory of chemical structures, which clarified the nature of the covalent bonds and the electronic structure of the molecules .
- 1967 RGW Norrie, G. Porter (UK).
M. Aigen (Germany) invented a technique for measuring fast chemical reactions.
- 1968 L. Onsag (USA) engaged in basic research on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.
- In 1969 O. Hassel (Norway) and KHR Patton (UK) contributed to the development of stereochemical theory.
- 1970 LF Leroyle (Argentina) discovered sugar nucleotides and their role in sugar synthesis.
- In 1971, G. Herzberger (Canada) was engaged in the research of the electronic structure and geometric structure of free radicals.
- In 1972, CB Anfinson (USA) identified a study of the active site of ribonuclease.
- In 1973, EO Fischer (Germany) and G. Wilkinson (UK) were engaged in the research of organometallic compounds with multilayer structures.
- In 1974, PJ Flory (USA) was engaged in basic research on the theory and experiment of polymer chemistry.
- 1975 JW Comforth (Australia) studied the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
V. Prelog (Switzerland) is engaged in the study of organic molecules and the stereochemistry of organic molecules.
- 1976 WN Lipscombe (USA) engaged in structural studies of borane
- In 1977, I. Prigogine (Belgium) mainly studied non-equilibrium thermodynamics and proposed the theory of ” dissipative structure “.
- In 1978 PD Mitchell (UK) engaged in energy conversion research on biofilms.
- In 1979, HC Brown (USA) and G. Wittig (Germany) developed new organic synthesis methods.
Late twentieth century
- 1980. P. Berg (USA) engaged in biochemical research of nucleic acids.
W. Gilbert (USA) and F. Sanger (UK) determined the base sequence of nucleic acids.
- In 1981, Kenichi Fukui (Japan) and R. Huffman (UK) applied quantum mechanics to develop the principle of conservation of molecular orbital symmetry and frontier orbital theory.
- In 1982, A. Kluge (UK) developed the electron diffraction method of crystallography and was engaged in the study of the three-dimensional structure of nucleic acid protein complexes.
- In 1983, H. Taub (USA) elucidated the electronic reaction mechanism of metal complexes.
- In 1984, RB Merrifield (USA) developed a very simple method for peptide synthesis.
- In 1985, J. Carr and Hauptman (USA) developed a direct calculation method to determine the crystal structure of a substance using X-ray diffraction.
- 1986 DR Hirschbach, Li Yuanzhe (Taiwan, China),
JC Polya Dynamics Nepal (Canada) studied the chemical potential energy surface of the reaction system during exercise.
- 1987 CJ Pedersen, DJ Cram (USA)
JM Lane (France) synthesizes crown ether compounds.
- 1988 J. Dyson Hofer, R. Huber, H. Michel (Germany), analyzed the three-dimensional structure of the photosynthetic reaction center.
- In 1989, S. Altman, TR Cech (USA) discovered that RNA itself has the catalytic function of enzymes.
- In 1990 EJ Corey (USA) created a unique theory of organic synthesis, the theory of reverse synthesis analysis.
- In 1991, RR Ernst (Switzerland) invented the Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance technology .
- In 1992 RA Marcus (USA) contributed to the theory of electron transfer reactions in solution.
- 1993 KB Mulis (USA) invented the ” polymerase chain reaction ” method
M. Smith (Canada) pioneered the “oligonucleotide-based site-directed mutagenesis” method.
- In 1994 GA Euler (USA) made outstanding contributions in the field of hydrocarbons, ie hydrocarbons.
- 1995. P. Cruzen (Germany), M. Molina .
FS Roland (USA) explained the chemical mechanism that affects the ozone layer, and proved that man-made chemicals can damage the ozone layer.
- 1996 RF Cole (USA), HW Crotoin (UK),
RE Smolly (USA) discovered a new form of carbon element-Fuller’s sphere (also known as Bucky sphere) C60.
- 1997 PB Boyer (USA), JE Walker (UK),
JC Skoe (Denmark) has found that ion transferases are responsible for storing and transferring energy in human cells.
- In 1998, W. Cohen (Austria) and J. Pope (UK) proposed the density functional theory .
- In 1999, Ahmad Xavier (Egypt, American) applied femtosecond spectroscopy to the study of transition states in chemical reactions.
Early 21st century
- In 2000, Haig (USA), McDermid (USA), and Shirakawa Hideki (Japan) discovered that plastics capable of conducting electricity work.
- In 2001 William Knowles (USA), Ryoji Noyori (Japan) in the ” chiral achievements catalytic hydrogenation reaction” in the field.
Barry Sharpless (USA) has made achievements in the field of “chiral catalytic hydrogenation”.
- In 2002, John-B-Finn (USA) and Tanaka Kenichi (Japan) developed soft ionization methods for large-scale mass spectrometry analysis of biopolymers.
Kurt – Ute Dietrich (Switzerland) to determine the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the solvent method.
- In 2003, Agri (USA) and McNong (USA) studied the structure and functioning mechanism of cell membrane water channels.
- 2004 Aaron Chekhanov (Israel), Afram Hershko (Israel),
Owen Rose (USA) has discovered ubiquitin-regulated protein degradation, an important mechanism for protein “death”.
- In 2005 Yves Chauvin (France), Robert Grubb (USA), and Richard Schrock (USA) studied the olefin metathesis reaction in organic chemistry.
- 2006 Roger Kornberg (USA) “The molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”.
- 2007 Gerhard Eitel (Germany) Solid Surface Chemistry Research.
- In 2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Non-Charles (United States), (Japanese-American) Tsien (Chinese-American) GFP ( green fluorescent protein for further study) and found.
- 2009 Research on “Structure and Function of Ribosomes ” by Venkatraman-Lema Krishnan (British-American), Thomas Staats (USA), and Ada Yunas (Israel)
- In 2010 Charles de Heck (United States), root Anying (Japan), Akira Suzuki (Japan) palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction.
- In 2011, Daniel Shechtman (Israel) discovered the quasicrystal material.
- 2012 Robert Lefkowitz (USA), Brian Kebierka (USA) “G protein-coupled receptor research.”
- In 2013 Martin Caprath, Michael Levitt, and Ariel Vachele “created multiscale models for complex chemical systems.”
Chemistry is a type of natural science that studies the composition, properties, structure, and changes of matter at the molecular and atomic levels, the science of creating new matter. Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The world is composed of matter and chemistry is one of the main methods and means used by humans to understand and transform the material world. It is a discipline with a long history and full of vitality.
Its achievements are an important symbol of social civilization. There are two forms of change: chemical change and physical change.