Hydrogen is a chemical element and is number one in the periodic table. The simple elemental form of hydrogen is hydrogen. It is a colorless, odorless, odorless, highly combustible gas composed of diatomic molecules. Hydrogen is the lightest gas.

Medically, hydrogen is used to treat diseases.

There are only very few free states of hydrogen on Earth and in the atmosphere. In the earth’s crust, hydrogen accounts for only 1% of the total mass if calculated by mass, and 17% if calculated in atomic percentage. Hydrogen is widely distributed in nature, hydrogen is water “warehouse” – the mass fraction of hydrogen in water is 11%, the soil around 1.5% hydrogen, oil, natural gas, hydrogen plant and animal body also.

In the air, there is not much hydrogen, which accounts for about five ten millionths of the total volume. In the entire universe, hydrogen is the most abundant element in terms of atomic percentage.

According to the research, the sun in the atmosphere, the computing atomic percent, and hydrogen accounting for 81.75%. In space, the number of hydrogen atoms is about 100 times greater than the sum of all other elemental atoms.

Element Introduction

Hydrogen is a chemical element with an atomic number of 1, and the chemical symbol is H (Hydrogenium), which is the first in the periodic table. Its atomic mass is 1.00794u, and it is the lightest element. It is the most abundant element in the universe, account for approximately 75% of the mass of the universe.

The main constituents of stars in the main sequence are all plasma hydrogen. On the earth, the free hydrogen element formed by natural conditions is relatively rare.

The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (piē), containing a proton, free neutrons. In the ionic compound, the hydrogen atom may be obtained an electron hydrogen anion constituting a hydride, may also be lost an electron hydrogen cations but actually, more hydrogen ions Exists for complex forms.

Hydrogen forms compound with almost all elements except rare gases and are found in water and almost all organic matter. It is particularly important in acid-base chemistry. Hydrogen ion-exchange often occurs in acid-base reactions. As the simplest atom, hydrogen has special theoretical value in atomic physics. Studies on the energy levels and bonding of hydrogen atoms have played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.

Hydrogen (H2) was first artificially synthesized in the early 16th century. The method used at that time was to place metals in strong acids. From 1766 to 81, Henry Cavendish discovered that hydrogen is another gas different from the gas previously found, which produces water when burned. This property also determines the Latin name “hydrogenium”. At normal temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a gas that is extremely flammable, colorless, transparent, and odorless.

The hydrogen atom is extremely reducing. Hydrogen is very reactive at high temperatures. Except for rare gas elements, almost all elements can form compounds with hydrogen.

Isotope

Hydrogen is the only element whose isotope has a different name. (Different isotopes of each element in history have different names and are no longer used.) D and T can also be used as symbols for deuterium and tritium, but P has been used as a symbol for phosphorus, so No longer used as a symbol of protium. According to IUPAC guidelines, D or 2H and T or 3H can be used, but 2H and 3H are recommended (different isotope masses are different), and thorium is usually used in life.

The isotopes of hydrogen in nature are:

Deuterium (hydrogen 2, deuterium, D)

Tritium (3 hydrogen, tritium, T)

The isotopes synthesized by artificial methods are: hydrogen 4, hydrogen 5, hydrogen 6, and hydrogen 7

Thorium (hydrogen-1)

Protium only one proton nucleus, abundance 99.98%, simple construction of the second atom.

Deuterium (hydrogen-2)

Deuterium is a stable form of isotope of hydrogen, also known as deuterium, and the element symbol is generally 2H or D. Its nucleus consists of a proton and a neutron. The content in nature is about one-seventh of the average hydrogen. The isotope of hydrogen (H), its relative atomic mass is twice that of ordinary light hydrogen, and a small amount is present in natural water for nuclear reactions and is used as a tracer atom (deuterium) in chemical and biological research work -also It is called “heavy hydrogen” and element symbol D.

Thorium (hydrogen-3)

Thallium, also known as super heavy hydrogen, is one of the isotopes of hydrogen, and the element symbol is T or 3H. It is made a nucleus composed of protons and two neutrons, and with a radioactive, decay beta] occurs, the half-life of 12.43 years. There is very little in nature and it is made from nuclear reaction. Mainly used in thermonuclear reactions.

Hydrogen-4

Hydrogen-4 is one of the isotopes of hydrogen. It contains protons and three neutrons. In the laboratory, a deuterium nucleus was used to bombard the plutonium nucleus to form a hydrogen 4 nucleus. In the process, the nucleus of tritium absorbs a neutron from the nucleus of deuterium. 4 is a hydrogen mass 4.0279121U, half-life is. 9.93696 × 10-22 seconds.

Hydrogen-4.1

Hydrogen-4.1 is structurally similar to helium, it contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons, but because one of the electrons is a muon but due to the special orbit of the muon, the orbit is very close to the atomic nucleus, and the innermost electron orbit and the micron the orbits of the protons are on the outer side relatively.

Therefore, the phantom can be regarded as a part of the nucleus, so the whole atom can be regarded as: the nucleus is composed of 1 pion, 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and the outer side. There is only one electron, so it can be regarded as an isotope of hydrogen and a strange atom. A muon weighs about 0.1U, named hydrogen -. 4.1 (4.IH). Hydrogen-4.1 atoms can react with other elements, and behave more like a hydrogen atom than an inert helium atom.

Hydrogen-5

Hydrogen-5 is one of the isotopes of hydrogen. Its nucleus contains four neutrons and a proton. In the laboratory, a plutonium nucleus was used to bombard plutonium. This allowed plutonium to absorb the protons of two plutonium nuclei to form hydrogen. 5. Hydrogen of 5 half-life is very short, only 8.01930 × 10-22 seconds.

Hydrogen-6

Hydrogen-6 is one of the unstable hydrogen isotopes. It contains one proton and five neutrons and has a half-life of 3 × 10-22 seconds.

Hydrogen-7

Hydrogen-7 is one of the unstable hydrogen isotopes. It contains one proton and six neutrons.

Preparation method

Industrial law

Water-gas law:

CO (g) + H₂O (g) = Catalyst = CO₂ (g) + H₂ (g)

In addition, there are electrolytic methods, hydrocarbon cracking methods, and hydrocarbon vapor conversion methods. Laboratory method of reaction between zinc and dilute sulfuric acid (standard laboratory method for middle school textbooks)

Zn + H₂SO₄ = ZnSO₄ + H₂ ↑

If hydrochloric acid is used, the produced hydrogen may be mixed with hydrogen chloride gas (HCl), because dilute hydrochloric acid is also volatile.

If iron or magnesium is used for the metal, the reaction rate will affect the experimental observation effect.

Other manufacturing methods

2Al + 3H₂SO₄ = Al₂ (SO₄)₃ + 3H₂ ↑

Fe + 2HCl = FeCl₂ + H₂ ↑

Fe + H₂SO₄ = FeSO₄ + H₂ ↑
Mg + 2HCl = MgCl₂ + H₂ ↑

Mg + H₂SO₄ = MgSO₄ + H₂ ↑
Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl₂ + H₂ ↑

Zn + H₂SO₄ = ZnSO₄ + H₂ ↑
2Al + 6HCl = 2AlCl₃ + 3H₂ ↑
2Al + 2NaOH + 2H₂O = 2NaAlO₂ + 3H₂ ↑
2H₂O = Direct current = 2H₂ ↑ + O₂ ↑
6CH₃COOH + 2Al = 2Al (CH₃COO)₃ + 3H₂ ↑ Aluminum reacts with acetic acid to generate hydrogen

Fe + 2HCl == FeCl 2 + H 2 ↑

Elemental purification

With the development of semiconductor industry, fine chemical industry and photovoltaic fiber industry, there is a demand for high-purity hydrogen. For example, a semiconductor manufacturing process requires the use of 99. More than 999% of the high purity hydrogen. However, the purity of hydrogen obtained by various hydrogen production methods in the industry is not high.

In order to meet the industrial demand for various high-purity hydrogens, further purification of hydrogen must be performed. Hydrogen purification methods can be roughly divided into two categories (physical and chemical methods).

Hydrogen purification methods mainly include low temperature adsorption, low temperature liquefaction, and metal hydride hydrogen purification. In addition, there are palladium membrane diffusion methods and hollow fiber membrane diffusion Method and pressure swing adsorption method.

Introduction to hydrogen energy

Secondary energy is an intermediate link between primary energy and energy users. Secondary energy can be divided into “process energy” and “energetic energy”. Today, electric energy is the most widely used “process energy”, diesel and gasoline are the most widely used “energetic energy sources”.

Due to the fact that “process energy” cannot be directly stored in large quantities, modern vehicles, such as automobiles, ships, and airplanes, which are highly mobile, cannot be used directly. The electrical energy output power plants. Only diesel and gasoline can be used. Class “Energetic Energy”. It can be seen that process energy and energetic energy cannot be replaced with each other, and each has its own application scope. With this, people are also looking for new “energetic body energy”. As secondary energy, electrical energy can be produced from various primary energy sources, such as coal, oil, natural gas, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, and tidal energy.

Geothermal energy, nuclear fuel, etc. can directly produce electricity. This is not the case with gasoline and diesel, which are secondary energy sources, and they are produced almost entirely from fossil fuels. With the increasing consumption of fossil fuels and the decrease in their reserves, these resources will one day be exhausted, and it is urgent to find a new energy-rich energy source that is rich in reserves and does not rely on fossil fuels.

Hydrogen energy is exactly the new secondary energy source that people expect when the conventional energy crisis appears and new secondary energy sources are being developed.

Function use

Hydrogen is an important industrial raw material, such as the production of synthetic ammonia and methanol. It is also used to refine petroleum. Hydrogenated organic substances are used as shrink gases. They are used in oxygen-hydrogen flame welders and rocket fuel.

Compared with other methods, reducing the metal oxide with hydrogen at a high temperature to make the metal, the properties of the product are easier to control, and the purity of the metal is also higher. Widely used in the production of tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, iron and other metal powders and germanium and silicon.

Because hydrogen is very light, people use it to make hydrogen balloons – hydrogen balloons. When hydrogen is combined with oxygen, a large amount of heat is released and used to cut metal.

Using the energy generated during the fusion of the isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, can produce highly destructive and destructive hydrogen bombs, which are much more powerful than atomic bombs.

Clean energy, fuel for cars, etc. To this end, the United States also proposed the “National Hydrogen Power Plan” in 2002. But because the technology is not yet mature, a large number of industrial applications have not yet been carried out. In 2003, scientists discovered that using hydrogen fuel would increase the amount of hydrogen in the atmosphere by about 4-8 times.

It is believed that it may make the upper end of the stratosphere colder and more clouds, and it will also exacerbate the expansion of the ozone hole. But some factors can offset this effect, such as reduced use of chlorofluoromethane, soil uptake, and fuel cells the development of new technologies.

At normal temperature, hydrogen is relatively inert, but it can be activated with a suitable catalyst. At high temperatures, hydrogen is highly reactive. Except for rare gas elements, almost all elements can form compounds with hydrogen. Non-metallic elements of the hydride is generally referred to as hydrogen, such as hydrogen halides , hydrogen sulfide, and the like; metal hydride element called metal hydrides, such as lithium hydride, calcium hydride and the like.

Hydrogen is an important industrial raw material, the energy of the future, and the cleanest fuel.

The isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium, can be used in nuclear fusion to provide energy. For technical reasons, nuclear fusion power generation has not been widely used.