Ionic bonds are formed when two or more atoms or chemical groups lose or gain electrons and become ions. There are electrostatic interactions between oppositely charged ions.
When two oppositely charged ions are close to each other, they appear to attract each other, and there is electrostatic repulsion between electrons and electrons, atomic nuclei and nuclei. When electrostatic attraction and electrostatic repulsion exist,
When the effect reaches equilibrium, an ionic bond is formed. Therefore, an ionic bond refers to a chemical bond formed between anions and cations through electrostatic interaction.
Ionic bonds are chemical bonds. Most salts are bonds formed by alkali or alkaline earth metals. Active metal oxides have ionic bonds. Compounds containing ionic bonds are called ionic compounds. Ionic bonds are related to the melting point and hardness of an object.
Ionic bonds, also known as salt bonds, are a type of chemical bond that is formed after two or more atoms or chemical groups lose or gain electrons and become ions. There is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged atoms or groups.
When two oppositely charged atoms or groups are close to each other, the surrounding water molecules are released into free water, between the negatively and positively charged atoms or groups. The electrostatic attraction generated to form ionic bonds.
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Such chemical bonds are often formed between metals and non- metals. Atoms that lose electrons are often atoms of metal elements, while atoms that acquire electrons are often atoms of nonmetallic elements. Ions with opposite charges are attracted to each other by electromagnetic force, thereby forming a chemical bond. Ionomer more hydrogen bond strength, and the strength thereof covalently close.
Bonding particles: anions and cations.
The nature of the bond: electrostatic interaction between anions and cations;
Influencing factors: the size of the anion and cation radius, the larger the radius, the smaller the ionic bond; the amount of anion and cation charge.
Electronic formula: “·” or “×” around the element symbol to represent the outermost electron of the atom.
The ionic bond has a strong force, no saturation, and no directivity.
Ionic bonds exist in ionic compounds, which exist in crystalline form at room temperature.
Ionomer more hydrogen bond strength, and the strength thereof covalently close.
Whether the anions and cations are neutralized
Some people may ask, are the anions and cations combined, and are the charges neutralized? In addition to the electrostatic attraction between sodium ions and chloride ions, there is also the mutual repulsion between electrons and electrons, atomic nuclei and nuclei. When the two ions approach a certain distance, the equilibrium between attraction and repulsion is reached, so a stable chemical bond is formed between anions and cations. Therefore, the so-called anion and cation charges do not neutralize each other.
Lattice Energy of Ionic Bonds
The bond energy of ionic bonds is relatively large, which is reflected in the ionic compound is the high melting point. The bond energy of ionic bonds is called the lattice energy. The sign of the lattice energy is consistent with the sign of the enthalpy change of the dissociation process of the ionic crystal.
The lattice energy can be calculated by the Bōrn-Haber cycle or the Bōrn-Landé formula, or it can be measured by experimental measurements
Form of Ions
Ionic bonds are formed by electron transfer (the person who loses an electron is a cation and the person who gains an electron is an anion).
There are electrostatic interactions between oppositely charged ions. When two oppositely charged ions are close to each other, they appear to attract each other, and there is electrostatic repulsion between electrons and electrons, atomic nuclei and nuclei.
When electrostatic attraction and electrostatic repulsion exist, when the effect reaches equilibrium, ionic bonds are formed, which is chemical bonds formed between positive and negative ions due to electrostatic attraction.
Ions may be either single ions, such as of Na +, CI –; may also be a radical formed.
It often forms between metals and non- metals. Atoms that lose electrons are often atoms of metal elements, while atoms that acquire electrons are often atoms of non-metallic elements. Generally, lively metals and lively non-Metals form ionic bonds.
When metals such as potassium, sodium, and calcium are combined with nonmetals such as chlorine and bromine, they can form ionic bonds. And only when the overall energy level drops, the reaction occurs (atoms connected by chemical bonds have lower energy levels than free atoms). The more the drop, the stronger the bond formed.
In reality, “pure” ionic bonds do not form between atoms. All bonds are more or less covalently bonded. The higher the electrical average between the bonding atoms, the lower the ionic bond component.
The bonding force of ionic bonds is very large, so the ionic crystal has high hardness, high strength, small thermal expansion coefficient, but high brittleness. Ionic bonds are difficult to generate freely moving electrons, so ionic crystals are good insulators.
In ionic bonding, because the outer electrons of the ions are relatively tightly bound, the energy of visible light is generally not enough to cause them to be excited, so they do not absorb visible light, so typical ionic crystals are colorless and transparent. Compounds such as Al2O3, MgO, TiO2 and NaCl are all ionic bonds.
When the positively charged element atoms and negatively charged element atoms in the periodic table contact each other, the former loses the outermost valence electron and becomes positively charged.
The latter gains electrons and becomes negatively charged full-shell anions. Positive ions and negative ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic attraction; at the same time, repulsion occurs when they are very close, and the stable ionic bond is formed when the attraction and repulsion are equal.
Research suggests that atoms in molecules or crystals are not simply piled together, but that there is a strong interaction. Chemically, this kind of strong force between atoms in a molecule or crystal (sometimes the atoms gain and lose electrons into ions) is called a chemical bond. The essence of a bond is a force. So some are called key force, or just key.
Take sodium and chloride to form sodium chloride as an example:
From the perspective of the atomic structure, there is one electron on the outermost electron layer of the sodium atom, which is easy to lose; the chlorine atom has seven electrons on the outer electron layer, and it is easy to get one electron. When the sodium atom meets the chlorine atom, the sodium atom loses one of the outermost electrons and becomes a sodium ion, which is positively charged.
The chlorine atom gets the electron lost by sodium and becomes a negatively charged chloride ion. with nuclei, between the electronic repulsion effect equilibrium, the formation of a stable ionic bond.