Magnetism and Matter: Natural magnet and artificial magnet
Natural magnet: A natural magnet is an ore of iron (Fe2O4) which
– Attracts small pieces of iron, cobalt, and nickel towards it
– When suspended freely, it comes to rest along the north-south direction.
Artificial magnet: Magnet which is prepared artificially is known as artificial magnets. e.g. a horseshoe magnet, a bar magnet, magnetic needle, etc.
Properties of magnets
Attractive property: When a magnet is dipped into iron filings, it is found that the concentration of iron filings, i.e., attracting power of the magnet is maximum at two points near the ends and minimum at the center. The places in a magnet where its attracting power is maximum are known as poles while the place of minimum attracting power is known as the neutral region.
Directive property: When a magnet is suspended, its length becomes parallel to the N-S direction. The pole at the end pointing north is known as the North Pole while the other pointing south is known as the South Pole.
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Magnetic poles always exist in pairs i.e., an isolated magnetic pole does not exist.
Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other.
Magnetic Field: The space around a magnet within which its influence can be experienced is known as its magnetic field. The line joining the two poles of a magnet is known as the magnetic axis.
Magnetic dipole: A magnetic dipole consists of two unlike poles of equal strength and separated by a small distance, e.g. a bar magnet, a compass needle, etc. are magnetic dipoles.
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