- Copper pyrites – CuFeS2
- Meta Phosphoric Acid – HPO3
- Lead Sulphide – PbS
- Hematite – Fe2O3
- Silicon Dioxide – SiO2
- Magnesium Carbonate – MaCO3
Phosphine Gas Preparation
Phosphides – When calcium and sodium Phosphides reacts with water, phosphine gas is obtained.
Ca3P2 + 6H2O → 3Ca(OH)2 + 2PH3
Ca3P + 3H2O → 3CaOH + PH3
Phosphine gas is also obtained by the action of dilute sulfuric acid from aluminium phosphide.
2AlP + 3H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + 2PH3
Phosphine gas is formed by the action of phosphonium iodide with sodium hydroxide.
PH4I + NaOH → PH3 + NaI + H2O
Phosphine gas can also be made by heating phosphorus acid.
4H3PO3 → 3H3PO4 + PH3
Phosphine gas is formed by heating white phosphorus with concentrated caustic soda.
4P + 3NaOH + 3H2O → 3NaH2PO2 + PH3
This method of making phosphine is used for manufacture in its laboratory. To make this gas in the laboratory, in a round bottomed flask, a few pieces of white phosphorus and a mixture of sodium hydroxide of about 40% concentrations are first heated slowly and then rapidly.
This device is air tight and the cork on the mouth of the flask has two tubes. One of these flows coal gas through the tube, displacing the air in the flask. Oxygen of air can lead to unnecessary charges from reactants and products.
Whereas coal gas does not do this. Shortly after the reaction begins, the flow to the coal gas is stopped. The second tube in the flask exits the phosphine gas. If the other end of this second tube is immersed in water, the gas coming out of the water makes white smoke rings.
This is due to the phosphorus hydrides(P2H4). Phosphorus hydrides gas (Diphosphane) rises as it comes in contact with air. White smoke is obtained due to the formation of Meta Phosphoric Acid(HPO3).
6P + 4NaOH + 4H2O → 4NaH2PO2 + P2H4
2P2H4 + 7O2 → 4HPO3 + 2H2O
In order to obtain pure phosphine gas, the gaseous mixture obtained from the exhaust pipe is flowed through the ice water. Where the impurities are condensed and separated and the pure phosphine gas is collected by downward displacement of water.
In the above method, pure phosphine gas is obtained by using an alkaline solution of KOH in place of aqueous NaOH solution.
Phosphine: Physical Properties
It is a colorless, century fish-like odor and poisonous gas.
It changes into a liquid state at – 85°C and a solid state at – 135°C.
It is a small amount of fusion in water and heavier than air.