Redox Reaction class 11 Notes: Download PDF files and DPP

Redox Reaction class 11 Notes

The reaction which involve oxidation and reduction is known as a redox reaction 

OxidationReduction
1.Addition of oxygen1.Addition of hydrogen
2.Removal of hydrogen2.Removal of oxygen
3.Addition of electronegative element3.Addition of electropositive element
4.Removal of electropositive element4.Removal of electronegative element
5.Loss of electron by an element5.Gain of electrons by an element

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Oxidation is a process where the oxidation number of an element increases.

 

Reduction is a process where the oxidation number of an element decreases. 

Oxidation is a process where the oxidation number of an element increases.

 

Reduction is a process where the oxidation number of an element decreases. 

Oxidising and Reducing agents

The substance which gets oxidised during a redox reaction is known as reducing agent.

The substance which gets reduced during a redox reaction is known as oxidising agent

Non metal: Oxidising agent

Metal: Reducing agent

Identify the substance undergoing oxidation and reduction in the following 1) reactions and Identify the

2) oxidizing and reducing agents

Oxidation number

Oxidation number is the apparent charge possessed by an atom in a molecule

Rules to calculate the oxidation number

1.The oxidation number of an atom in pure elemental form is always zero ( H2, Cl2, Zn, N2, S8, P4 )
2.The oxidation number of fluorine is always –1.
3.The oxidation number of alkali metals is always +1 and that of alkaline earth metals is +2
4.The oxidation number of oxygen in most of the compounds is –2. But in peroxides and superoxides the oxidation state is  –1 and –½ respectively
5.The oxidation number of hydrogen in most of the compounds is +1. But in metal hydrides like NaH, CaH2 the oxidation number is –1.
6.In a molecule the sum of oxidation numbers of all the elements is zero.
7.In a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms is equal to the charge on the ion.

Types of Redox Reactions

There are four types of redox reactions. 

  • Combination reactions
  • Decomposition reactions
  • Displacement reactions
  • Disproportionation reactions

Combination reaction

A combination reaction is a reaction in which elements combine to form the products.

Either of A or B or both A and B must be elemental in nature

A + B ➜ P

Decomposition reaction

1.Decomposition reaction leads to the breakdown of a compound into two or more components at least one of which must be in the elemental state.
2.Decomposition reaction is opposite of combination reaction. 

Displacement reaction

 An ion (or an atom) in a compound is replaced by an ion (or an atom) of another element.

There are two types of displacement reactions. 

1.Metal displacement reaction
2.Non-metal displacement reaction

Disproportionation reaction

 In a disproportionation reaction, an element in one oxidation state is simultaneously oxidised and reduced. 

1.The element in the form of reacting substance is in the intermediate oxidation state
2.fluorine does not show a disproportionation tendency

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