Solid State Notes
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Solids: They have definite mass, volume, and shape due to the fixed position of their constituent particles, small intermolecular distances and strong intermolecular forces between them.
Solids: They can be classified as crystalline or amorphous on the basis of the nature of order present in the arrangement of their constituent particles.
Types of crystalline solids: Classification of crystalline solids on the basis of the nature of intermolecular forces.
Crystal lattice: The regular three-dimensional arrangement of constituent particles in a crystal is called a crystal lattice.
Lattice points: Constituent particles (atoms, molecules or ions) of a solid crystal are represented as points that are known as lattice points or lattice sites.
Unit cell: The smallest repeating pattern which represents structure of a crystalline solid is called a unit cell.
It is the smallest portion of a crystal lattice which when repeated in different directions generates the entire lattice.
A unit cell has characteristic dimensions along the three edges a, b and c and interfacial angles a (between b and c), b (between a and c) and g (between a and b).
On the basis of primitives or axial distances and interfacial angles, there are seven crystal systems and fourteen Bravais lattices.
The Solid State, A solid is a state of aggregation of matter. Compared with liquids and gases, solids have a relatively fixed volume and shape, and relatively hard texture.
A solid is a macroscopic system. It composed of particles of the order of 10 ^ 23. It is a complex multi-body system. The ground state of the solid (that is, the state at T = 0K) is not only the lowest state but also an ordered state.
From a micro perspective, the macro properties measured experimentally are the response of a solid. When it transitions from the ground state to the excited state under the action of external disturbances.
In general, solids are macroscopic objects. Except for some special low-temperature physics phenomena such as superconducting phenomena and superfluid phenomena, solids as a whole do not show phenomena of quantum mechanics.
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Crystalline solids: Regular structure. Such as sugar, salt, and other crystals.
Amorphous solids: random structure. Such as glass.
Quasicrystals (Polycrystalline solids): from the large crystals (Crystals) or die (Grains) gathered together, crystals or grains have a regular structure itself, but they are gathered into a polycrystalline arrangement when the solid is irregular.
Through the interaction between its constituents, the properties of a solid can be very different from the properties of the particles that make it up. The physical science that studies solids is called Solid Physics.
Generally speaking. An object cannot be called a solid until it reaches a certain size, but there is no clear rule for this size. In general, solids are macroscopic objects. Except for some special low-temperature physics phenomena such as superconducting phenomena and superfluid phenomena, solids as a whole do not show phenomena of quantum mechanics.
1. The particles in the solid are tightly interlocked. It is difficult to move. The solids have a specific location. An external force is applied to the material. The solid will deform, causing permanent deformation. Although any solid body will have thermal energy and particles can vibrate with each other, the particle movement is relatively less intense and it is not easy to observe by feeling.
Through the interaction between its constituents, the properties of a solid can be very different from those of the particles that make it up. The physical science that studies solids is called solid physics.
2. Expansion and contraction of solids
Solids expand when heated and shrink when cold
Melting of solids
3. When the solid reaches the melting point, it will become liquid and its quality will not change.
Salt, sugar and other solid materials with regular geometric shapes are called crystals, like paraffin, and rubber is called Amorphous.
At 1.4 million atmospheres, solids will become super-solids, and in the super-solid state, the neutron state can be obtained by continued pressure.
The solid components are relatively dense, and the degree of vibration is relatively weak. They have the ability to prevent external forces from deforming, including ordered and disordered systems. There are clear boundaries.