Electrolysis is a process in which electric current is used to force a redox reaction. Electrical energy is converted into chemical energy.
For example, electrolytic cells are used for the production and purification of substances.
Electrolysis takes place in an electrolysis cell. This is in contrast to the galvanic cell. Using the example of a rechargeable battery, you can understand this from: The charging process is electrolysis, the discharging process is the galvanic reaction.
Electrolysis is a redox reaction forced by electrical energy. The electrical energy is converted into chemical energy.
Electrolysis has a wide range of applications in chemistry: for example in the extraction of metals (aluminium) or the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen.
The electrolysis takes place in an electrolysis cell. A chemical reaction is forced by the inflow of electrical energy.
Structure of the Electrolytic Cell
An electrolytic cell consists of two electrodes on which the partial reactions of the redox reaction take place. The electrodes are connected across a voltage source and are immersed in a conductive liquid. You also refer to the conductive liquid as an electrolyte. It consists of cations and anions.
The electrode connected to the negative pole is called the cathode and the electrode connected to the positive pole is called the anode.
Accordingly, the structure of electrolytic cells and galvanic cells are very similar. But there are two fundamental differences:
the electrolytic cell uses a voltage source, the galvanic cell uses a current collector
electrolysis takes place in a container, the galvanic cell is divided into two
Electrolysis works as follows: If you apply direct current across the two electrodes, the electrons flow in the direction of the cathode. As a result, there is a shortage of electrons at the anode and an excess of electrons at the cathode.
The excess of electrons at the cathode causes the positive cations to move to the cathode. There they absorb the excess electrons and are thus reduced. Meanwhile, the same number of negative anions migrate to the positive anode and give up their electrons there (oxidation).
A minimum voltage is required for electrolysis to take place. You also call it the decomposition voltage (Uz). Only when your decomposition voltage is reached does the electrolysis take place.
There are many examples of electrolysis. So that you can better understand the principle of electrolysis, we will show you a few. The electrolyses of…
zinc iodide (ZnI2)
Sodium chloride (NaCl) and water
Electrolysis zinc iodide
Zinc iodide (ZnI2) is a chemical compound of zinc and iodine and is one of the halides. You can use an aqueous solution of zinc iodide as the electrolyte.
If you now apply a DC voltage, the positively charged zinc ions (Zn2+) migrate to the cathode. There they absorb two electrons (reduction) and elemental zinc (Zn) is formed at the cathode. A reverse reaction of the elementary zinc is prevented by a uniform decomposition voltage and thus a constant excess of electrons at the cathode.
The negatively charged iodide ions (2I-) collect at the anode. There they each give up an electron (oxidation). This produces elementary iodine (I2).
Oxidation: 2 I– -> I2 + 2e–
Reduction: Zn2+ + 2e– -> Zn
You can represent the entire redox reaction as follows:
Redox reaction: Zn2+ + 2 I– -> Zn + I2
As you can see, the action of the electric current has broken the chemical compound zinc iodide into the elements zinc and iodine.
Electrolysis sodium chloride
You also call the electrolysis of sodium chloride common salt electrolysis. Sodium chloride is decomposed by an electric current. It belongs to the chloralkali electrolysis. You use an aqueous solution of sodium chloride as the electrolyte.